Jammu & Kashmir, Information about Jammu & Kashmir, Travel to Jammu & Kashmir
           Jammu & Kashmir
Welcome to Jammu & Kashmir


North India

South India

East India

North East











Bird Watching





Special Tours

Train Tours





Car Rental

View All Tours


Jammu & Kashmir Travel


India Tours

31 Days Rajasthan

30 Days Gujarat

26 Days South

19 Days North India

18 Days Rajasthan

17 Days South

16 Days Shekhwati

14 Days North India

13 Days Sikkim

11 Days Nepal

9 Days Ladakh

8 Days Taj Triangle

4 Days Tibet


North India Tours

Impressions of Ladakh

Highlights  North India

North India By Road

North India & Nepal

Temple Tour in India

19 Days Buddhist Tour

North India with Puri

Temple Tiger Tour


Himachal Tours

Enchanting Himachal Pradesh Tour

Himachal Pradesh Intensive Tour

Himachal Tour

15 Days Himachal Tour

13 Days Himachal Tour

12 Days Himachal Tour

Himachal Pradesh Tour

Himachal Trekking Tour

9 Days Himachal Tour

Himachal Short Tour

8 Days Shimla Tour


Ladakh Tours

Camel Safari in Ladakh

Zanskar River Rafting

Cycling in Ladakh

Ladakh Trekking Tour

Trekking in Markha

Ladakh Jeep Safari

Trekking in Ladakh

Ladakh Biking

Trekking in Nubra Valley

Jeep Safari in Ladakh

Land of Ladakh

Best of Ladakh

Impressions of Ladakh

Travel Guide
Indian Architecture 
Indian Embassies
Flight Sickness
India Information
Nepal Information 
India Geography
Indian History
Media in India

Rajasthan Tours

Colourful Rajasthan

Rajasthan With Pushkar

Cultural Tour

Delightful Rajasthan

Desert Tour

Desert Triangle

Gujarat & Rajasthan

Holidays in Rajasthan

Honeymoon Tour

Luxury Palace Tour

Rajasthan & South India

Rajasthan Desert Tour

Rajasthan East Tour

Rajasthan for Women

Rajasthan Gujrat Tour

Rajasthan North India

Rajasthan Short Tour

Rajasthan Tibet Kashmir

Information about Jammu & Kashmir
Map, Map of Jammu and Kashmir

The state of Jammu and Kashmir is not merely the Vale of Kashmir. It is a very large state and only slightly smaller than the British islands. The state of Jammu and Kashmir comprises of three distinct regions and is the largest Himalayan state in India. These regions are Jammu, mainly the Hindu region lies in the foothills in the south; Srinagar and the Vale of Kashmir is mainly the Muslim region and lies in the centre; Leh and Ladakh, form the eastern highlands across the great Himalayan axis and comprises of mainly the Buddhists. While, Srinagar, a city of beautiful lakes, Mughal gardens and wonderful shopping opportunities is the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir. Jammu is the winter capital of Jammu and Kashmir. The state of

Jammu and Kashmir has three distinct entities with different climate, flora, fauna and cultures. The people in these parts don't only live differently but also speak different languages, worship different gods and have different ethical and moral codes.

History of Jammu and Kashmir

For various years, Kashmir was ruled by the Scythian Hindu princes who were succeeded by the Tartars. In 1588, the Mughal emperor Akbar conquered Kashmir and built the Hari Parbat Hill in Srinagar. Jahangir, his son was captivated by the beauty of the Kashmir and made it a man-made paradise by planting chenar trees and constructing pleasure gardens. In 1739, Nadir Shah, the Persian annexed Kashmir. Misr Chand, who served as a General in the army of Ranjit Singh, took it in 1819 and was granted effective control over the territory. After the end of the first Sikh War in 1846, it was assigned to the Maharaja Gulab Singh of Jammu, who founded the dynasty of Dogra Rajputs. During the 19th century, Kashmir became popular with the British. Before independence, Kashmir already developed a distinct political base with the secular Congress party led in Kashmir by Sheikh Abdullah, establishing itself as the leading democratic political force in the state. Although the Muslim league favoured joining Pakistan, the Congress had a clear preference for joining India or remaining independent from both the new states. In south west Kashmir, the Muslims rebelled and declared as Azad Kashmir and forged links with Pakistan. In 1948, the ceasefire was agreed with India and Pakistan. The ceasefire was the main reason that separated the frontier between the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir from the Pakistani Azad Kashmir. Since 1956, Jammu and Kashmir has had its own constitution with its own integrity. In 1972, the Prime Minister of Pakistan signed the Shimla Agreement with Mrs. Indira Gandhi, under which both countries recognised the Line of Control between them and agreed that the disputes would be resolved through bilateral negotiations. As a result, the Sheikh Abdullah was released from prison and agreement was made between them. The easternmost part of that boundary across the Siachen glacier, at over 6000 meters was left undemarcated. This similar type of situation between India and Pakistan remained same throughout the late 1980. In the late 1989, violence erupted in the Vale of Kashmir which at the time, the Indian press put down to discontent with corrupt election practices of the state government. In 1990, the Indian government also blamed the violence on Pakistani sponsored terrorism. Throughout 1990, the foreign tourists were advised not to visit Kashmir. This recommendation remained in force throughout 1991. After 1991, the situation became favourable and both, foreign and Indian tourists now visit Jammu and Kashmir.

Geography of Jammu and Kashmir

The state of Jammu and Kashmir covers an area of 222,236 square kms, slightly smaller than New Zealand. The state is joined to the rest of India by a 30 km long boundary with Punjab and 300 km boundary with Himachal Pradesh. Pakistan lies in the east, Tibet lies in the north and China lies in the north east. Geographically, the region falls into three regions. The southern region stretches from the plains to the Pir Panjal. The Vale of Kashmir, the second region, lies between the Pir Panjal and the High Himalaya, at an altitude of 1,580 metres. It is a great syncline that contains various lakes fed by the Jhelum and other rivers. Rising behind the Vale are the Great Himalaya which culminate in the west with Nanga Parbat. The Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Beas rivers that provide vital irrigation water to Punjab, cross the state. Between the Ganga plains and the Tibetan Plateau are the Trans-Himalaya, forming a rugged zone of transition. Across it runs the Indus river, rising in Tibet and running between the Zanskar range in the south and the Ladakh range in the north. The vegetation is very thin and comprises of thorny bushes and watercourses. In contrast to Kashmir where about one third of the land area is still under forest, Ladakh has few trees. Some of these trees are the chenar tree (the giant Asian Plane Tree, Platanus orientalis), willows and a wide variety of pines.

Climate of Jammu and Kashmir

The best time to visit Jammu and Kashmir is during summers. In the Vale of Kashmir, the summers are fresh and the nights are brisk. In Srinagar, the temperatures remain as high as 37 degree Celsius in summer and – 11 degree Celsius in winter. As one reaches higher, these maximum temperatures reduces. There are great contrasts in the temperature between north and south facing slopes and even in summer many streams flow a few hours per day when the ice melts in the beds. The climates of the various regions of Jammu and Kashmir are influenced mainly by position and altitude. While, Kashmir is affected by the monsoons, Ladakh is never touched by the monsoons. Even in the Vale of Kashmir the rainfall is reduced due to the influence of the Pir Panjal.

Economy of Jammu and Kashmir

Only 20% of Jammu and Kashmir is cultivated with intensive farming. Irrigation is also practised in some of the areas. About 80% of the people depend on agriculture. Rice, wheat and maize are the major crops of the region. Barley, bajra, jowar, pulses and vegetables are also grown in some parts of Kashmir in the market gardens and well-watered areas. The floating market gardens of the Dal lake are also fertile. In the Vale of Kashmir, there are very large orchards of apples, peaches, pears, apricots, walnuts and almonds. Saffron, the most famous spice is only produced in the Vale of Kashmir. In Ladakh, there is only one cropping season due to harsh climate and lack of rains. So, pastoral farming is carried out in Ladakh. The 'Cashmere' wool is obtained from the sheeps, goats and yaks.

People of Jammu and Kashmir

The total population of Jammu and Kashmir is 9 million people that are divided unequally between Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh. The Vale of Kashmir is the most densely populated with over half the total number while, Ladakh is the most sparsely populated. The people in these parts don't only live differently but also speak different languages, worship different gods and have different ethical and moral codes. Culturally Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh are different from each other. Kashmir is mainly dominated by the Muslims that marks the northernmost advance of Islam in the Himalaya while Ladakh is known as ‘Little Tibet’. Urdu, Kashmiri, Hindi, Dogri, Pahari and Ladakhi are the main languages which are spoken by the people. The Ladakhis belongs to Tibet. It was governed in secular matters by an independent prince and in spiritual affairs it was guided by the Dalai Lama. In Kashmir, people speak

the Kashmiri language. The Kashmiri language is influenced by Sanskrit and belongs to the Dardic branch of the Indo-Aryan languages. Linguistically and physically, Kashmiris are similar to the tribes around Gilgit in Pakistan. In Ladakh, the people speak the Ladakhi language. The Ladakhi’s features reveal a mixture of Tibetan-Mongolian and Indo-Aryan elements. In Ladakh, the majority of the people are Lamaistic Buddhists.

Festivals of Jammu and Kashmir

The most common festivals which are celebrated in Jammu and Kashmir are Lohri, Baisakhi, Bahu mela, Jhiri mela, Mansar food and craft mela, Chaitre Chaudash mela, Purmandal mela and Navratri. The Hemis and Sindhu Darshan Festival are the famous festivals of Ladakh. Lohri is celebrated one day before Makar Sankranti. In Kashmir, especially in the rural areas, young boys visit elders and newly wed couples and ask for gifts and presents. Young boys move around in colorful processions and perform the Chhajja dance. The Jhiri mela is held annually in the memory of a poor farmer who according to popular belief committed suicide to protest against the unfair demands of his landlord. The Chaitre Chaudash mela is held during the months of March-April at Uttar Behni, a village located about 25 kms. from Jammu. The Purmandal mela is held at Purmandal that is located about 39 kms. from Jammu. This fair is celebrated on the occasion of Maha Shivratri.

Cuisine of Jammu and Kashmir

The cuisine of Kashmir is very rich. One of the famous meals of Kashmir is the Wazwan. Wazwan is a formal meal prepared in the home to mark a special occasion. The Waza is the chief cook who supervises the serving of about a dozen specially prepared dishes which are offered to the guests who are usually seated on the floor in groups of four. The meal begins with the passing around of the Tash-t-Nari for guests to wash their hands, followed by the various delicacies like Methi, Rogan Josh, Kebabs and vegetables and Gushtaba. The dessert is usually Phirni and Kahwah. Kahwah is the green tea, flavoured with saffron, cardamom and almonds.

Shopping in Jammu & Kashmir

Kashmir is mainly known for its distinctive and finely executed handicrafts. Carpets, papier mache objects, woolen shawls and brassware are the main famous handicraft items of Jammu and Kashmir. Some of these items were developed when Srinagar was an important spot on the ancient trans-Himalayan route. Today Kashmiri handicrafts are available all over the world. The Kashmiri shawls are known all over the world for their softness and warmth. Some of the best shawls are the pashmina (Cashmere) and Shahtush. The Shahtush shawls are the warmest, rarest and the most expensive shawls. Some other famous craft items of Kashmir are crewel work (chain stitching) on fabric, fur coats and Kashmiri silver jewellery.

Tourist Attractions in Jammu and Kashmir

Kashmir is one of the most visited states of India and has various facilities to offer to the visitor. Kashmir has a superb summer climate and glorious scenery, and increasing opportunities for skiing in winter. Gulmarg and Pahalgam draw large numbers of visitors and offer outdoor activities such as trout fishing and trekking. Adventure sports such as white water rafting and trekking are offered in Ladakh. In both regions, tourism is an important source of income. Most of the visitors to Ladakh are also attracted by its Buddhist and Tibetan culture.

Wildlife in Jammu and Kashmir

The state of Jammu and Kashmir has many delights to offer to the wildlife enthusiast and bird watchers. The mountains, foothills and plains houses a diverse variety of flora and fauna. Several national parks and wildlife sanctuaries have been established in Jammu and Kashmir like Ramnagar Wildlife Sanctuary, Kishtwar High Altitude National Park, Nandni Wildlife Sanctuary, Surinsar Mansar Wildlife Sanctuary, Jasrota Wildlife Sanctuary, Dachigam National Park, Overa Wildlife Sanctuary and Gulmarg Biosphere Reserve.  More....

How to reach here

Kashmir and Ladakh are connected with air with the various parts of India. The airports are located at Jammu, Srinagar and Leh. Due to the bad weather in winter, Srinagar and Leh are often closed. The main railway station is located in Jammu which is well connected with various other North Indian states. The Jawahar tunnel is the longest tunnel in Asia which links Jammu with the Vale of Kashmir. The road from Srinagar to Leh via Kargil is a magnificent piece of engineering and the means by which most people travel between the two places.


Frequent group departures...
Tours all over India – Nepal and Bhutan Home Mail to tourism expert of India e-mail  Online chat regarding travel and tours to India Chat Get contact information to Indian Tour Operator and Travel Agent Contact  Send your enquiry or tour request. Enquiry  Tour and Travel experts for India and Indian sub-continent About Us

Your feedback about travel and tours to India and Indian sub-continentFeedback


Visit the site map of Indo Vacations Site Map India related and other useful links Links

Copyright © Indo Vacations. All Rights Reserved.